Right Side Stomach/Abdominal Pain; Causes, Symptoms and Treatment.

What is stomach/ abdominal pain?

Abdominal pain is referred to pain felt in the abdomen. The abdomen is an anatomical area that is bounded by the lower margin of the ribs and diaphragm above, the pelvic bone (pubic ramus) below, and the flanks on each side.

Pain can arise from the tissues of the abdominal wall that surround the abdominal cavity such as the skin and muscles. Abdominal pain is generally used to describe discomfort originating from organs within the abdominal cavity. Organs of the abdomen include the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, spleen, and pancreas.

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Abdominal pain range in intensity from a mild stomach ache to severe acute pain. Abdominal pain is caused by many conditions such as cramps, infections (Irritable Bowel Syndrome), abnormal growths, inflammations (like Appendicitis, Diverticulitis, colitis), intestinal obstruction (blockage) and intestinal disorders.

Causes of Right side abdominal pain

Right side abdominal pain is referred to discomfort or pain on the right side of the stomach or abdomen. Right side abdominal pain can be caused by any of the following;


Appendix is a small, thin tube that is located where the large and small intestines meet. Appendicitis is the inflammation of the appendix. Appendicitis is caused by the blockage of the hollow portion of the appendix by calcified stones made of feaces. It is mostly associated with the pain in the lower right side of the abdomen. It is also one of the most common and significant causes of severe abdominal pain.

Signs and Symptoms of appendicitis

1. Nausea.
2. Vomiting.
3. Fever.
4. Diarrhea.
5. Constipation.
6. Abdominal swelling.
7. Poor appetite.

Severe symptoms of appendicitis

1. Sharp pain on right side of the lower abdomen.
2. Inability to pass out gas.
3. Fever.
4. Total loss of appetite.

How to prevent appendicitis

1. Maintain good immune system.
2. Eat balanced diet.
3. Maintain healthy lifestyle.

Diagnosis of appendicitis

The diagnosis of appendicitis is largely based on the person’s signs and symptoms. Diagnosis is based on medical history and physical examination. In cases where the diagnosis is unclear, close observation, medical imaging and laboratory tests is helpful. The two most common imaging tests used are an ultrasound and computed tomography (CT scan). CT scan is mostly more accurate than ultrasound in detecting acute appendicitis. Though ultrasound is preferred as the first imaging test for children and pregnant women because of the risks associated with radiation exposure from CT scans.

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Treatment for appendicitis

The standard treatment for acute appendicitis is surgical removal of the appendix. This may be done by an open incision in the abdomen (laparotomy) or through a few smaller incisions with the help of cameras (laparoscopy). Surgery decreases the risk of side effects or death associated with rupture of the appendix. Antibiotics effective in some cases of non-ruptured appendicitis.

Home remedies for appendicitis

1. Castor Oil:

  • Castor oil is an effective home remedy for appendicitis. A castor oil pack can help relieve the blockage and reduce inflammation. Castor oil taken orally helps treat constipation and improves bowel movements.
  • Prepare a castor oil pack by folding a large flannel cloth into layers and pouring 2 tablespoons of castor oil on it.
  • Lie down on an old towel and put the flannel cloth on your abdomen.

Repeat this remedy 3 times a week for 2 to 3 months.

2. Garlic:

Garlic has anti-inflammatory therapeutic property that aid the treatment of appendicitis. It helps reduce the inflammation as well as pain.

  • Eat 2 to 3 raw garlic cloves on an empty stomach daily. You can also use garlic in for cooking.

3. Ginger:

Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, ginger also help in treatment of appendicitis. It help reduce pain and inflammation. It also help relieve the common symptoms, vomiting and nausea.

  • Drink ginger tea 2 or 3 times daily. To prepare ginger tea, simmer 1 teaspoon of grated ginger or ginger slices in a cup of boiled water for 5 to 10 minutes.
  • Massage your lower abdomen with ginger oil few times daily.
  • You can also take ginger capsules, but only after consulting your doctor.

4. Fenugreek Seeds:

Fenugreek seeds are effective in the treatment of appendicitis. These seeds prevent the accumulation of intestinal waste and excess mucus, thus reducing the possibility of the problem becoming severe. They also help reduce pain.

  • Add 2 teaspoons of fenugreek seeds to 1 cup of water. Bring to a boil, then simmer on low heat for 10 to 15 minutes. Strain and have this decoction when lukewarm once daily.
  • Include fenugreek seeds in your cooking to control pain and inflammation.

5. Lemon

Lemon is also very beneficial in treating appendicitis. The natural citrus juice in lemon helps relieve pain and prevent indigestion and constipation. In addition, the vitamin C in lemon boosts the immune system to prevent infection.

  1. Extract fresh juice from 1 lemon.
  2. Mix it with an equal quantity of raw honey.
  3. Take this mixture a few times a day.
  4. Repeat daily for a few weeks.

6. Basil:

If the appendicitis patient has a low-grade fever, basil is an effective herb for bringing down the temperature. Basil is also a good remedy for indigestion and intestinal gas.
To reduce fever, boil a handful of basil leaves and 1 teaspoon of grated ginger in 1 cup of water until the solution is reduced by half. Strain and add a little honey.

Drink this tea 2 times daily for a couple of days.
To get rid of intestinal gas, mix 5 crushed basil leaves, ¼ teaspoon of sea salt and a little black pepper powder in 2 to 3 tablespoons of plain yogurt. Consume it twice daily.
You can also have 3 to 4 raw basil leaves daily to help control appendicitis symptoms.


Hernia occurs when an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it in place. For example, the intestine may break through a weakened area in the abdominal wall. Hernias are most common in the abdomen but they can also appear in the upper thigh, belly button, and groin area. Most hernia are not immediately life-threatening but they don’t go away on their own. Sometimes they can require surgery to prevent potentially dangerous complications. There are several types of hernia most of which happen in the abdomen. Each type can cause pain or discomfort in the affected area.

Common types of hernia

Inguinal hernia: Inguinal hernia is the most common type of hernia. It make up about 70 percent of all hernia. This hernia occur when the intestines push through a weak spot or tear in the lower abdominal wall, often in the inguinal canal.

This type of hernia is more common in men than women because man testicles descend through the inguinal canal shortly after birth and the canal is supposed to close almost completely behind them. Sometimes, the canal doesn’t close properly and leave a weakened area prone to hernia.

Hiatal hernia: Hiatal hernia occur when part of your stomach protrudes up through the diaphragm into your chest cavity. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that help breathing by contracting and drawing air into the lungs. It separates the organs in your abdomen from those in your chest.

This type of hernia is most common in people over 50 years old. In children, this condition is caused by a congenital birth defect. Hiatal hernia do cause gastroesophageal reflux, which occur when the stomach contents leak back into the esophagus, causing a burning sensation.

Umbilical hernia: Umbilical hernia occur in children and babies under 6 months old. It occur when the intestines bulge through the abdominal wall near their bellybutton.

Umbilical hernia is the only type of hernia that go away on its own as the abdominal wall muscles get stronger, mostly by the time the child is 1 year old. If the hernia is not gone by that age, surgery can be used to correct it.

Incisional hernia: Incisional hernia usually occur after abdominal surgery. It occur when intestines push through the incision scar or the surrounding weakened tissue.

Causes of Hernia

Hernia is commonly caused by muscle weakness and strain.

Muscle weakness are caused by: of the abdominal wall to close properly in the womb which is a congenital defect.

  • Age.
  • Chronic cough.
  • Damage from injury or surgery.

Body strain is caused by

  1. Pressure on the abdomen caused by pregnancy.
  2. Abdominal strain caused by bowel movement in case of constipation.
  3. Heavy weight lifting.
  4. Fluid in the abdomen or ascites
  5. Sudden weight gain.
  6. Persistent coughing or sneezing.

Sign and symptoms of hernia

  1. Swelling or bulging at the affected part.
  2. Increased pain while lifting, laughing, crying, coughing or straining.
  3. Dull headache.
  4. Nausea.
  5. Constipation.
  6. Pain or discomfort in the affected area (usually the lower abdomen), especially when
    bending over, coughing, or lifting.
  7. Weakness, pressure and heaviness in the abdomen.

How to prevent hernia

  • Don’t smoke.
  • See your doctor early in case of persistent cough.
  • Maintain a healthy body weight.
  • Avoid straining your bowel during defecation or urination.
  • Lift heavy objects with your knees not your back.
  • Avoid lifting objects that are too heavy for you.

Diagnosis of hernia

Diagnosis of hernia is usually through physical examination, Barium X-Ray or endoscopy and ultrasound depending on the type of hernia.

Treatment of hernia

Severe cases of hernia are treated by surgical operation and medications. Some patients are placed on special diets.

Home remedies for hernia

1. Castor Seed Oil

Castor oil help in coating the stomach in a thin lining, it prevent inflammation and encourage proper digestion. You can prepare a castor seed oil pack and place it on the stomach to soothe the painful symptoms of a hernia.

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2. Aloe Vera Juice

As a natural anti-inflammatory and soothing agent, aloe vera is often recommended for people who are struggling with the pain of a hernia. Aloe vera can be consumed every morning in juice form. For best results, it can be eaten prior to every meal to lower the chances of developing a hernia.

3. Ice pack

Hernia comes inflammation, redness, and pain in the abdomen or groin. Application of an ice pack directly to the affected area cause contraction, reduce inflammation in the body, relieve pain and bloating associated with it.

4. Ginger Root

Ginger root help reduce abdominal pain and soothe inflammatory conditions, few things are as effective as ginger root. You can consume this remedy in liquid form through concentrated ginger juice, or you can eat raw ginger to give your stomach a healthy boost and reduce much of the pain. It can protect the stomach and esophagus from the build-up of gastric juices, which can happen in the case of a hernia.

5. Licorice

Hernia do cause damage to the stomach lining and the esophagus. Licorice root as a healing stimulant is very good for healing affected the stomach lining and the esophagus. Licorice tea quickly stimulate the re-growth of damaged tissues, relieve pain and inflammations, due to its analgesic properties.

Kidney Infection

Kidney infection is a painful and unpleasant illness usually caused by cystitis, a common infection of the bladder. Kidney infection is caused by bacteria that usually come from the urinary tract. This infection affects one of the two kidney or both. Kidney infection cause pain on the right side of the lower abdomen.

Untreated kidney infection can cause permanent damage of the kidney.

Causes of kidney infection

Kidney infection (Pyelonephritis) occur when bacteria (E. coli) get into the tube that carries urine out of the urethra. The bacteria travel up to the bladder, cause cystitis, and move up into the kidneys.

E. coli bacteria normally live in the bowel where it cause no harm, It become harmful when transferred from the bowel to the genitals during sex or when cleaning up after defecation.

Kidney infection are often caused by Urinary Tract Infection and other kidney problem like kidney stones, diabetes or weakened immune system. Kidney can also be infected after kidney surgery.

Signs and symptoms of kidney infection

  • Fever.
  • Chills.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Pain or burning when urinating.
  • Pus or blood in urine.
  • Cloudy and smelly urine.

How to prevent kidney infection

  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Regular defeacation and urination.
  • Go to toilet after sex
  • Regular cleaning of the private part.
  • Early treatment of any constipation.
  • Use condom during sex.
  • Eat less meat.
  • Loose some weight if obese.
  • Minimize the intake of pain relievers like aspirin and ibuprofen.

Diagnoses of Kidney Infection

Kidney infection is diagnosed through recent medical history and urine examination.

Treatment of kidney infection

Most kidney infections need prompt treatment with antibiotics to stop the infection from damaging the kidney or spreading to the bloodstream. You also need painkiller.
Home remedies for Kidney Infection.

Home remedy can not cure kidney infection, it can only help with managing the symptoms. Kidney Infection is treated by oral hydration and antibiotics.

Apple cider vinegar kidney infection remedy is very effective. Put a tablespoon of the vinegar and two teaspoons of honey into warm water and consume this mixture twice a day for a few weeks.

Kidney stones

Kidney stones (renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis) are a hard buildup of minerals and salts that form inside of your kidneys. It is painful until the kidney stones begin to move around or pass into the tube that connect the kidney and bladder. It cause severe pain at the back hand side, below the ribs, throughout the lower abdomen and groin.

The intensity and location of the pain may change as the kidney stone shifts and moves through the urinary tract.

Causes of kidney stones

Kidney stones has no definite or single cause. Dehydration is the major factor that contribute to the formation of kidney stones. Kidney stones are formed when urine become concentrated allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together. Passing kidney stones could be painful but it cause no permanent damage.

Types of Kidney stones

1. Calcium stones: Most kidney stones are calcium stones usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in food and also produce daily by the liver. Some fruits, vegetables, nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate content.

Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium oxalate in urine.

Calcium stones may also occur in the form of calcium phosphate. This type of stone is more common in metabolic conditions, such as renal tubular acidosis. It may also be associated with certain migraine headaches or with taking certain seizure medications, such as topiramate (Topamax).

2. Struvite stones: Struvite stones form in response to an infection, such as urinary tract infection. These stones grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.

3. Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones can form in people who don’t drink enough fluids or lose too much fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those who have gout. Certain genetic factors may increase your risk of uric acid stones.

These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder that cause the kidney to excrete too much of certain amino acids (cystinuria).

Sign and symptoms of kidney stones

  • Severe pain in the back hand side, below the ribs.
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin.
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity.
  • Pain on urination.
  • Pink, red or brown urine.
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Persistent need to urinate.
  • Fever and chills.

Severe symptoms of kidney stones:

  • Pain so severe to the extent that you can’t sit still or find a comfortable position.
  • Pain accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
  • Pain accompanied by fever and chills.
  • Blood in your urine.
  • Difficulty in passing out urine.

How to prevent Kidney stones

Kidney stones can be prevented by regular drinking of lot of water. This reduce the concentration of urine in the body and aid easy passing out of kidney stones if already formed. Drinking plenty amount of water also help prevent the complications of kidney stones.

Kidney stones can also be prevented by maintaining diet low in salt, animal protein and oxalate-rich foods.These include rhubarb, beets, okra, spinach, Swiss chard, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate, black pepper and soy products.

Diagnosis of Kidney stones

1. Blood testing: Blood tests reveal too much calcium or uric acid in the blood. Blood test results help monitor the health of the kidneys. Doctor may need to check for other medical conditions.

2. Urine testing: This involve 24-hour urine collection test which shows if the patient is excreting too many stone-forming minerals or too few stone-preventing substances. For this test, your doctor may request that you perform two urine collections over two consecutive days.

3. X-ray: Imaging tests show kidney stones in the urinary tract. Options range from simple abdominal X-rays, which can miss small kidney stones, to high-speed or dual energy computerized tomography (CT) that can reveal even tiny stones.

Other imaging options include an ultrasound, a noninvasive test, and intravenous urography, which involves injecting dye into an arm vein and taking X-rays (intravenous pyelogram) or obtaining CT images (CT urogram) as the dye travels through your kidneys and bladder.

Analysis of passed stones: This involve urinating through a strainer inorder to catch stones in urine. Laboratory analysis will reveals the content of the kidney stones. Doctor use this information to determine the cause of the kidney stones and to find a way to prevent production of more kidney stones.

Treatment for kidney stones

Treatment of kidney stones varies depending on the type of stones, cause and size of the stone. This also determine the medications that will be prescribed by the doctor.

Patients with small stones are advised to drink much water daily until they have a light and clear urine. They are also placed on pain relievers ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB), acetaminophen (Tylenol) or naproxen sodium (Aleve). Large kidney stones are removed by surgical operations.

Home remedies for Kidney stones.

1. Water: water is one of the easiest ways to prevent and treat kidney stones. Drinking 12 glasses per day may help ease the passage or slow the growth of deposits in the kidneys.

2. Lemon juice: Lemon contain citrate, a compound that helps break down calcium deposits and slow down their formation. Two 5-oz glasses, the first on an empty stomach first thing in the morning and another a few hours before dinner, help break down smaller stones.

It is important to examine labels closely when purchasing juice products. Many products labeled as lemon juice contain small amounts of pure lemon extract and high amounts of sweeteners, which can increase the risk of kidney stones. Buying pure extract or purchasing fresh lemons and squeezing them at home are the easiest ways to get undiluted lemon juice.

3. Basil: Basil contains compounds known to help stabilize uric acid level in the body, making it harder for kidney stones to form. Basil also contain acetic acid, a chemical known to help dissolve kidney stones. One teaspoon of basil extract or pure juice per day help prevent and treat kidney stones.

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4. Apple cider vinegar: cider vinegar contain citric acid that help dissolve calcium deposits. Two tablespoons of pure apple cider vinegar mixed with 8 oz of water reduce the symptoms of kidney stones and prevent their development. This mixture can be taken several times a day and most effective when consumed before meals.

5. Wheatgrass juice: Wheatgrass juice help to expel minerals and salts from the urinary tract, preventing them from crystalizing into kidney stones.

Wheatgrass contains compounds that increase urine production, allowing stones to pass out easily and reducing the risk of their formation.

Wheatgrass also contains antioxidants which help rid the urinary tract of minerals and salts. The urinary benefits of wheatgrass are best obtained by consuming 2- to 8-oz of pure extract or juice daily. Supplemental powders or pills are also available at many health stores.

6. Extra-virgin olive oil: Extra-virgin olive oil is a thick, rich oil that help ease the passage of kidney stones by lubricating the urinary tract. A 5-oz glass first thing in the morning and late in the afternoon help reduce pain and discomfort that comes with kidney stones.

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder that affects the large intestine. The main cause of Irritable bowel syndrome has not been identified but some factors and conditions have been detected by doctors. This includes stronger-than-normal intestinal contractions or abnormalities in the digestive nervous system.

Causes of Irritable bowel syndrome

1. Muscle contractions in the intestine: The walls of the intestines are lined with layers of muscle that contract as they move food through the digestive tract. Contractions that are stronger and last longer than normal can cause excess gas, bloating and diarrhea. Weak intestinal contractions can slow food passage and lead to hard and dry stools.

2. Nervous system: Abnormalities in the nerves of the digestive system may cause you to experience greater than normal discomfort when your abdomen stretches for gas or stool. Poorly coordinated signals between the brain and the intestines can cause your body to overreact to changes that normally occur in the digestive process, resulting in pain, diarrhea or constipation.

3. Inflammation in the intestines: Some people with IBS have increased number of immune-system cells in their intestines. This immune-system response is associated with pain and diarrhea.

4. Severe infection: IBS can develop after severe diarrhea (gastroenteritis) caused by bacteria or virus. IBS is associated with rapid increase in the number of bacteria in the intestines (bacterial overgrowth).

Sign and symptoms of Irritable bowel syndrome

  1. Cramps.
  2. Bloating.
  3. Excess Gas.
  4. Diarrhea.
  5. Constipation.
  6. Abdominal pain.
  7. Mucus in the stool.

Severe symptoms of Irritable bowel syndrome

  1. Weight loss.
  2. severe Diarrhea.
  3. Rectal bleeding.
  4. Iron deficiency anemia.
  5. Unexplained vomiting.
  6. Difficulty swallowing.
  7. Persistent pain that isn’t relieved by passing gas or bowel movement.

How to prevent Irritable bowel syndrome

  • Proper stress management.
  • Progressive relaxation exercises.

Diagnosis of Irritable bowel syndrome

Diagnoses involve physical examination, assessment using some criteria, laboratory test and imaging tests.

Assessment criteria include:

Rome criteria: This criteria include abdominal pain and discomfort lasting on average at least one day in a week in the last three months. Associated Pain and discomfort are related to defecation, the frequency of defecation and stool consistency is altered.

Manning criteria: This criteria focus on pain relieved by passing out stool and having incomplete bowel movements, mucus in the stool and changes in stool consistency. The more symptoms the person has, the greater the likelihood of IBS.

Type of IBS

For the purpose of treatment, there is need to detect the type of IBS based on the symptoms: constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant or mixed.

Imaging tests include

Flexible sigmoidoscopy: The doctor examine the lower part of the colon (sigmoid) with a flexible, lighted tube (sigmoidoscope).

Colonoscopy: The doctor use a small, flexible tube to examine the entire length of the colon.
X-ray or CT scan: These tests produce images of your abdomen and pelvis that allow the doctor to rule out other causes of the symptoms, especially if abdominal pain is involved. Doctor might fill the large intestine with liquid (barium) to make any problem more visible on X-ray. This barium test is sometimes called a lower GI series.

Laboratory tests include

Lactose intolerance tests: Lactase is an enzyme needed for digestion of the sugar in dairy products. If lactose is not produced in the body, this can cause problems similar to those caused by IBS, including abdominal pain, gas and diarrhea. In order to be double check, doctor may request for breath test or ask the patient to remove milk and milk products from daily diet for several weeks.

Breath test for bacterial overgrowth: Breath test determine the presence of bacterial overgrowth the small intestine. Bacterial overgrowth is more common among people who had bowel surgery, diabetes or some other disease that slows down digestion.

Upper endoscopy: A long, flexible tube is inserted down your throat, into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). A camera on the end of the tube allow the doctor to inspect the upper digestive tract and obtain a tissue sample (biopsy) from the small intestine and fluid sample to look for overgrowth of bacteria. Doctors mostly recommend endoscopy when celiac disease is suspected.

Stool tests: Stool is examined for presence of bacteria or parasites or bile acid (a digestive liquid produced in the liver) in cases of chronic diarrhea.

Treatment for Irritable bowel syndrome

Treatment of IBS focus mostly on relieving symptoms. Mild signs and symptoms are often controlled by managing stress and by making changes in diet and lifestyle. Dieticians are the best help for changing diet.
Doctor advise patients to avoid food that trigger their symptoms and observe the following;

  1. Eat high-fiber foods.
  • Drink plenty of fluids dail
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Get enough sleep.

Doctor also suggest the elimination of some food from diet, which include: High-gas food: Patients experiencing bloating or excess gas, should avoid carbonated and alcoholic beverages, caffeine, raw fruit, and certain vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower.

Gluten: Patients with diarrhea symptoms should stop eating gluten containing foods (wheat, barley and rye).

FODMAPs: Some people are sensitive to certain carbohydrates such as fructose, fructans, lactose and others, known as

FODMAPs. FODMAPs are found in certain grains, vegetables, fruits and dairy products. Follow strict low-FODMAP diet is effective in treating the symptoms of IBS, then reintroduce foods one at a time.

In moderate or severe IBS, doctor might suggest counseling especially if the patient is depressed or if stress tends to worsen the symptoms. Doctors also prescribe suplements and medications for reducing the symptoms of IBS, which include:

Fiber supplements: Taking a supplement such as psyllium (Metamucil) with fluids help control constipation.

Laxatives: If fiber doesn’t help symptoms, magnesium hydroxide oral (Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia) or polyethylene glycol (Miralax) are prescribed.

Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter medications, such as loperamide (Imodium), can help control diarrhea. Doctor also prescribe a bile acid binder, such as cholestyramine (Prevalite), colestipol (Colestid) or colesevelam (Welchol). Bile acid binders can cause bloating.

Anticholinergic medications: Medications such as dicyclomine (Bentyl) help relieve painful bowel spasms and diarrhea. These medications are generally safe but can cause constipation, dry mouth and blurred vision.

Tricyclic antidepressants: This type of medication can help relieve depression as well as inhibit the activity of neurons that control the intestines to help reduce pain. If you have diarrhea and abdominal pain without depression, your doctor may suggest a lower than normal dose of imipramine (Tofranil), desipramine (Norpramine) or nortriptyline (Pamelor). Side effects — which might be reduced if you take the medication at bedtime — can include drowsiness, blurred vision, dizziness and dry mouth.

SSRI antidepressants: Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem) or paroxetine (Paxil), help with depression, pain and constipation.

Pain medications: Pregabalin (Lyrica) or gabapentin (Neurontin) help ease severe pain and bloating.

Medications approved for treatment of IBS include

Alosetron (Lotronex): Alosetron is designed to relax the colon and slow the movement of waste through the lower bowel. It is prescribed only in cases of diarrhea-predominant IBS in women who have not responded to other treatments, and it is not approved for use by men because of its side effects. It has been linked to rare but important side effects, so it should only be considered when other treatments are not successful.

Eluxadoline (Viberzi): Eluxadoline ease diarrhea by reducing muscle contractions and fluid secretion in the intestine. It also increase muscle tone in the rectum. Side effects can include nausea, abdominal pain and mild constipation. Eluxadoline has also been associated with pancreatitis, which can be serious and more common in certain individuals.

Rifaximin (Xifaxan): This antibiotic decrease bacterial overgrowth and diarrhea.

Lubiprostone (Amitiza): Lubiprostone increase fluid secretion in your small intestine which help with the passage of stool. It is approved for women who have IBS with constipation, and generally prescribed only for women with severe symptoms that have not responded to other treatments.

Linaclotide (Linzess): Linaclotide increase fluid secretion in the small intestine to help you pass stool. Linaclotide can cause diarrhea, but taking the medication 30 to 60 minutes before eating can help with the side effect.

Home remedies for Irritable bowel syndrome

1. Regular exercise.
2. Reduce stress and relax.
3. Eat high fibre foods.
4. Reduce laxatives intake.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease is a group of debilitating digestive disorders that cause changes in bowel tissue and increases of risk of colorectal cancer.

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Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the most common causes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. They cause inflammation within your digestive tract which lead to abdominal pain.

IBD can lead to life-threatening complications if left untreated. You should see your doctor immediately if you notice any of its symptoms.

Types of Inflammatory bowel disease

1. Ulcerative colitis: This condition causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum.

2. Crohn’s disease: This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, which often spreads deep into affected tissues.

Causes of Inflammatory bowel disease

The exact cause of inflammatory bowel disease is still unknown. Previously, diet and stress were suspected, but now doctors know that these factors may aggravate the disease but doesnot cause IBD.
One possible cause is an immune system malfunction.

When your immune system tries to fight off an invading virus or bacterium, an abnormal immune response causes the immune system to attack the cells in the digestive tract. Heredity also seem to play a vital role in this, IBD is more common in people who have family members with the disease.

However, most people with IBD doesn’t have this family history, which make it very difficult to pin point the main cause of IBD.

Signs and symptoms of Inflammatory bowel disease

  • Severe diarrhea.
  • Fatigue.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fever.
  • Blood in your stool.
  • Reduced appetite.

How to prevent Inflammatory bowel disease

1. Avoid high residual diet.
2. Eat more soft food.
3. Take much liquid daily.
4. Avoid alcohol.

Diagnosis of Inflammatory bowel disease

This involve physical examination, blood tests, endoscopic and imaging procedures.

Physical examination: assessment of the signs and symptoms in the particular patient.

Blood tests: Tests for anemia or infection.

Fecal occult blood test.

Endoscopic procedures

Colonoscopy: This exam allow the doctor to view the entire colon using a thin, flexible, lighted tube with an attached camera.

During the procedure, doctor can take small tissue sample (biopsy) for laboratory analysis which help confirm a diagnosis.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy: Doctor uses a slender, flexible, lighted tube to examine the rectum and sigmoid, the last portion of your colon.

If colon is severely inflamed, doctor perform this test instead of a full colonoscopy.

Upper endoscopy: In this procedure, your doctor uses a slender, flexible, lighted tube to examine the esophagus, stomach and first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This test is recommended for patients with nausea and vomiting, difficulty eating or upper abdominal pain.

Capsule endoscopy: This test is sometimes used to help diagnose Crohn’s disease involving the small intestine. The patients is ask to swallow a capsule that has a camera in it. The images are transmitted to a recorder worn on a belt, the capsule exits the body painlessly in stool.

Balloon-assisted enteroscopy: For this test, a scope is used in conjunction with a device called an overtube. This enables the doctor to look further into the small bowel where standard endoscopes can not reach. This technique is useful when a capsule endoscopy shows abnormalities, but the diagnosis is still in question.

Imaging procedures

X-ray: In cases of patients showing severe symptoms, standard X-ray of the abdominal area us used to rule out serious complications, such as a perforated colon.

Computerized tomography (CT) scan: CT scan is a special X-ray technique that provides more detail than a standard X-ray. This test looks at the entire bowel as well as tissues outside the bowel. CT enterography is a special CT scan that provides better images of the small bowel. This test has replaced barium X-rays in many medical centers.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): MRI scanner uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of organs and tissues. An MRI is particularly useful for evaluating a fistula around the anal area (pelvic MRI) or the small intestine (MR enterography).

Unlike a CT, there is no radiation exposure with MRI.

Treatment of Inflammatory bowel disease

The goal of inflammatory bowel disease treatment is to reduce the inflammation that triggers its signs and symptoms. In the best cases, this may not only relieve the symptom but also cause long-term remission and reduce risks of complications. IBD treatment usually involves either drug therapy or surgery.

Anti-inflammatory drugs: Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Anti-inflammatory drugs include corticosteroids and aminosalicylates, such as mesalamine (Asacol HD, Delzicol, others), balsalazide (Colazal) and olsalazine (Dipentum).

Immune system suppressors

These drugs work in different ways to suppress the immune response that releases inflammation-inducing chemicals into the intestinal lining. For some people, combination of these drugs works better than using one drug alone.

Some examples of immunosuppressant drugs include azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran), mercaptopurine (Purinethol, Purixan), cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune) and methotrexate (Trexall).

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha inhibitors, or biologics: works by neutralizing a protein produced by your immune system. Examples include infliximab (Remicade), adalimumab (Humira) and golimumab (Simponi).

Other biologic therapies that may be used are natalizumab (Tysabri), vedolizumab (Entyvio) and ustekinumab (Stelara).

Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be used in addition to other medications or when infection is a concern — in cases of perianal Crohn’s disease, for example. Frequently prescribed antibiotics include ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and metronidazole (Flagyl).

Surgery: Surgery is recommended, diet and lifestyle changes, drug therapy, or other treatments are unable to relieve signs and symptoms of IBD.

Surgery for ulcerative colitis: Surgery can eliminate ulcerative colitis. It involve removing the entire colon and rectum (proctocolectomy). In most cases, it involve a procedure called an ileal pouch anal anastomosis. This procedure eliminates the need to wear a bag to collect stool. The surgeon constructs a pouch from the end of the small intestine. The pouch is then attached directly to the anus, allowing the person to expel waste normally.
In some cases a pouch is not possible. Instead, surgeons create a permanent opening in the abdomen (ileal stoma) through which stool is passed for collection in an attached bag.

Surgery for Crohn’s disease: Up to one-half of people with Crohn’s disease require at least one surgery but surgery does not cure Crohn’s disease.

During surgery, the damaged portion of the digestive tract is removed and the healthy sections are reconnected. Surgery may also be used to close fistulas and drain abscesses. The benefits of surgery for Crohn’s disease are usually temporary. The disease often reoccur, frequently near the reconnected tissue. The best approach is to follow surgery with medication to minimize the risk of reocurrency.

Recommended diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

  • Fiber rich foods help in preventing constipation. Papaya is highly beneficial, It is a rich source of fiber, thus it help with digestion. Bran and bran cereals are also useful.
  • Moderate intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, dark berry juices from cherries, Blackberry and blueberries. Avoid
  • sugar and saturated fats.
  • Intake of Cantaloupe increases vitamins, minerals and fibers in the body. Intake of vitamin C improves immunity.
  • Similarly, vitamin B and k are equally important. Intake of bananas or steamed bananas provide the body with pottassium. It is very effective in the treatment of haemorrhoids which is one of the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Intake of buttermilk and rice are highly soothing in case of ulcerative colitis.

Home remedies for Inflammatory bowel disease;

Sitz baths: Soak the rectal area in the tub for 15 minutes in lukewarm water. Follow this remedy two to three times a day constantly for three weeks. Wipe the area with soft cotton towel. This can cure the inflammation.
Apply compresses saturated in ice packs and pomegranate juice to the anus. It provides instant relief to the inflammation. Wrap the ice in soft cotton cloth and keep it for short period of time but it sometimes lead to swelling. Soft cotton cloth used to avoid abrasion.

Exercise: Mild exercise help with treatment of crohn’s disease. It relieves depression, heals bowel problem and reduces stress. It normalizes bowel function. Do regular relaxation and breathing exercises to cure Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Easy therapies: Intake of red clover decreases inflammation and heal Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Make use of cod liver oil. This fish oil is rich in omega-3 which is helpful in the treatment of the disorder.
Aloe vera juice is very useful for treatment of Inflammatory bowel disease. Drink half cup of aloe vera juice two times a day. Avoid it during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Epsom salt: Whisk two cups of equal amount of Epsom salt and water. Place a saturated flannel cloth over the abdomen for few minutes.

Apple: Steamed apples also heal colon ulcer, thereby serving as one of the most valuable natural home remedies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Yoga: Include yoga in your lifestyle to get rid of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, with the help of yoga experts.

Recommended hospitals for treating right side abdominal pain

  • Parkland specialist hospital, Lagos.
  • Havana specialist hospital, Lagos.
  • Crystal specialist hospital, Alimosho, Lagos.
  • Tolbert specialist hospital, Abuja.
  • Royal specialist hospital, Asokoro, Abuja.
  • Primus International super specialist hospital, Abuja.
  • Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kofa mata road, Kano.
  • Amino Kano teaching hospital, Kano.
  • C. Bennett specialist hospital, Portharcourt.
  • Gynescope specialist hospital, portharcourt.
  • State specialist hospital, Akure.
  • First mercy specialist hospital, Akure.
  • LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo.
  • Onward Specialist hospital, Osogbo.
  • Sacred Heart specialist hospital, Lantoro road, Abeokuta.
  • Angel and Eagle specialist hospital, Abeokuta.


In conclusion, it is advisable to get treatment at early stage of any of the above explained conditions. If you notice any of the above signs and symptoms, visit your doctor immediately before it become severe.

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