Pig farming has to do with the process of rearing weaners or piglets until they mature for commercial use. This process has to do with getting the appropriate piglets, vaccines and management. The pig pens have to be properly constructed.
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It is also essential to take care of the boar, the farrow and manage the gestation period. This article shares how to start a pig farming business in Nigeria.
Pig Farming Business In Nigeria
Introducing Pig Farming
Pig Farming has to do with the breeding and raising of domestic pigs and this is a branch in agriculture called animal husbandry. Pig belongs to the genus Sus in the family of suidae known as ungulates ( even toed). Among the pigs is the domestic pig which came from the common Eurasian wild boar known as Sussrofa with the rest of the species. Warthog and Babirusa are among the species related outside the genus. Pig is a native of Africa and Eurasian. The child pig is called piglets. Pigs are grown in a place known as pig pen.
What Are The Species Or Breeds Of Pigs?
There are many species of pigs and included among them are Aksai Black pied, American Yorkshire, Warty pigs and bearded pigs, Bisaro and Bangur. These are more common species in some geographical locations than the rest. There are foreign breeds and local breeds in Nigeria. The pigs originating from Nigeria are the local breeds while the white ones are from foreign countries.
Cross breeds of pigs are gotten after a local female pig mates with a foreign male pig or the reverse of it
How Profitable Is Pig Farming Business?
Of course pig farming is profitable. The demand for pork is rising for many purposes including industrial purposes. One can make much profit in this business.
What Is The Cost Of Starting This Pig Business?
The cost is determined by whether the business is small scale or large scale. Small scale pig farming will mean a lower cost while large scale pig farming will mean more cost. A piggery in your backyard will not require a complex pig pen or piggery. You will need many farm plots for the pig farm. Pigs are marketed in kilograms. They are normally weighed on scales. Pig price in Nigeria varies. A kilogram is estimated at N500 but this is dependent on certain factors.
Steps To Begin A Pig Farming Business In Nigeria
You will take the following steps for your pig farming business:
- Determine what size you intend for your piggery
- Find out the pig market in your area
- Get a skilled person to construct your pig pen
- Ensure you get piglets that are healthy
- Find out about vaccinations and pig vaccines
- Consider pig diseases and how to cure them
- Find out about feeding pigs
- Start scale or large scale if you have the capital, otherwise start small
- Get necessary training
Determine what size you intend for your piggery
The size of your pig determines other things like the feeding, the pen, market and labour. However if you intend to have a small pig farm, then your backyard can serve after a pen. However this is different for a large scale piggery.
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Find out the pig market in your area
Conduct market research in your area to know the available market for your pig farming business before starting the business. The pig market in Nigeria is growing market. To whom and where are you going to sell these pigs when they are grown? There are categories of pig buyers in Nigeria. Are you going to sell them alive? Do people consume pork at a particular period? These questions make up your market research.
Construct your pen
Consider certain factors when constructing your pig pen. Ensure that your pen has space and is neat to avoid diseases and insects. You will have to consider a plot of land or half of it so as to begin on a medium scale. Pigs require their pen to be divided into 4 sections which are:
- Where they sleep
- Where they eat
- Where they excrete
- Space to move about, exercise and entertain
Pigs are fond of congregating together therefore if half a plot can take in a particular number of pigs based on the size, do not expect that a plot of land will accommodate naturally. Have it multiplied to accommodate more since they love to lie down and be seen around by each other. During construction make the pen of your pig square and do not make it rectangular. Even though you can use rectangular pig pen, it will not give you the best for managing your pigs. You are advised to have the floor of your pen drain properly. This is due to the fact that pigs possess pointy hooves that have much weight.
Clay soil may not cause much issue in an environment that is dry but it can quickly be disturbing for pigs when there is wetness of the environment since this can cause illness and contribute to waste.
Are you going to make your pens of concrete?
You can decide to make use of concrete pens for your pig farming. Concrete pens are of good use since they solve mud problems/footing by the web floor or clay. However they accommodate heat in hot seasons and this can result in illness and joint injuries.When you are constructing the pen for your pigs, consider them to be at market size. Let the size be spacious enough for the pigs.
Get piglets that are healthy
Piglets that you intend to use for your pig farming should be healthy and the piglets have many traits. The health of your piglets will affect your pig business. Better and healthy piglets promote better yields.
Pig vaccines and vaccination
Vaccination are done to pigs using vaccines to protect them from diseases. These vaccines contain bacteria, viruses, bacterial toxins. Many diseases can be eradicated by vaccines. To manage vaccines:
- Check date of expiring
- Store in refrigerator
- Use thermometer for temperature measurement
- Don’t overload and store food in the refrigerator
- Follow instructions and utilise one fresh needle for each pig
- Avoid improper mixture of vaccines and dispose your needles. Clean syringes and bottles and vaccines are legitimate.
Pig diseases and solutions
You may need the services of a veterinary doctor for this. The doctor will help in handling many pig diseases.
Pigs should be fed twice a day. However some factors determine this. The breed, age and the quantity of grass available, weather, temperature and exercise are factors. Pigs tend to eat up to 11b of pellets in a day for each of the month, 21b of pellets for 2 months and 31b of pellets for 3 months etc. Piglets need proteinous food. They also eat some human food.
Starting small is preferable unless you have all the information and capital.
Get necessary training on pigs. You may pay some money for this.
Also get appropriate pig equipment.
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The demand for pigs for domestic and industrial use is much in Nigeria making farming a lucrative enterprise. This article gives you the steps to start one. If you have any questions about pigs or starting the pig farming business, you are free to use our comment box.